Archive for the ‘ Alcoholism ’ Category

Parental Alcoholism Is Risk for Offspring’s Alcoholism

Researchers know that there is a strong link between parental alcohol use disorders and the risk for developing an alcohol use disorders among their offspring. This study looked at the risk of alcohol use disorders in the offspring of a large population-based sample of Danish parents. Findings confirmed that parental alcohol use disorders were associated with an increased risk of alcohol use disorders among the offspring.

“Few studies have used a broad population-based approach to examine associations between a parental history of alcohol use disorders and risk of an alcohol use disorders in offspring,” said Erik Lykke Mortensen, associate professor in medical psychology at the University of Copenhagen and corresponding author for the study. “Longitudinal population studies are both expensive and take a long time to complete. In some countries it may also be a problem to follow several generations through decades. But in Denmark we have personal identification numbers and national health registries.”

Population Based Study

Mortensen and his colleagues gathered data on 7,177 individuals (3,627 men, 3,550 women) born in Copenhagen between October 1959 and December 1961: information on alcohol use disorders was gathered from three Danish health registers, and information on other psychiatric disorders (OPDs) was gathered from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. Offspring registration with an alcohol use disorders was analyzed in relation to parental registration with an alcohol use disorders and/or OPD. The gender of the offspring and parental social status were also noted.

Results showed that parental alcohol use disorders were associated with an increased risk of alcohol use disorders among the offspring, independent of other significant predictors such as gender, parental social status, and parental psychiatric hospitalization with other diagnoses.

“Furthermore, this association appeared to be stronger among female than male offspring, which suggests that inherited factors related to alcohol use disorders are at least as important among daughters as among sons,” said Mortensen. “This finding is important because some early studies suggested that a genetic load played a stronger role in males than in females.”

Increased Risk for Alcoholism

One of the important aspects of this study, added Mortensen, is that contrary to a number of previous adoption and twin studies – often based on relatively small and selected samples – these findings represent risk estimates from a population-based study.

“The key message for the general public is that there is an increased risk associated with parental alcoholism,” said Mortensen, “but obviously many other factors determine whether an individual develops an alcohol use disorder.”

Results will be published in Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research.

April 18th, 2011  in Alcoholism No Comments »

Helping Others Helps Alcoholics Stay in Recovery

Participating in community service activities and helping others is not just good for the soul; it has a healing effect that helps alcoholics and other addicts become and stay sober, a researcher from Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine reports.

In a review article published in the Volume 29 issue of Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, Maria E. Pagano, PhD, associate professor of psychiatry at the School of Medicine, sheds light on the role of helping in addiction recovery, using the program of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) as a prime example.

Service Works Helps Alcoholics

She cites a growing body of research as supporting evidence. “The research indicates that getting active in service helps alcoholics and other addicts become sober and stay sober, and suggests this approach is applicable to all treatment-seeking individuals with a desire to not drink or use drugs,” Dr. Pagano says. “Helping others in the program of AA has forged a therapy based on the kinship of common suffering and has vast potential.”

In her research, Dr. Pagano highlights the helper therapy principle (HTP), a concept embodied by AA, as a means of diminishing egocentrism or selfishness, a root cause of addiction. The HTP is based on the theory that, when a person helps another individual with a similar condition, they help themselves. The principle is reflected in the stated purpose of AA, which is to help individuals “stay sober and help other alcoholics achieve sobriety.”

Helping other alcoholics is viewed as the foundation for the alcoholic helper to stay on the path to recovery, Dr. Pagano says in her overview of the AA program. In addition to outlining the basis for AA-related helping, Dr. Pagano reviews the data to date that illustrates the health and mental health benefits derived from helping others.

Helping Others Helps You

She likewise examines several empirical studies she conducted previously which show how helping others in 12-step programs of recovery help the recovering individual to stay sober. The research includes a 2004 study by Dr. Pagano and her colleagues. Using data from Project MATCH, one of the largest clinical trials in alcohol research, the investigators determined that 40 percent of the alcoholics who helped other alcoholics during their recovery successfully avoided drinking in the 12 months following three months in chemical dependency treatment, whereas only 22 percent of those that did not help others stayed sober.

A subsequent study by Dr. Pagano and her colleagues in 2009, also involving data from Project MATCH, showed that 94 percent of alcoholics who helped other alcoholics, at any point during the 15-month study, continued to do so as part of their ongoing recovery, and experienced lower levels of depression.

Positive Effects of Helping Others

Similarly, a study of alcoholic patients with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), a condition in which a person is excessively preoccupied with a perceived physical defect, found that those who helped others were more likely to become sober and enjoy an improved self-image than non-helpers.

“These studies indicate that among alcoholics, AA-related helping and giving general help to others has positive effects on drinking outcomes and mental health variables,” Dr. Pagano says in the journal. In fact, the benefits of doing good works and helping others also extend to individuals coping with chronic conditions like depression, AIDS, and chronic pain.

Benefits to Society

“When humans help others regardless of a shared condition, they appear to live longer and happier lives,” she adds. The benefits of helping are significant because the costs of alcoholism and drug addiction to society are so great, Dr. Pagano says.

In light of recent health care reform, resources which can reduce these costs and suffering are crucial. However, the lack of consensus on what peer helping is in addiction recovery requires additional study to clarify what specific behaviors to encourage, to whom and what forms of service to recommend for individuals engaging in early and ongoing recovery.

Dr. Pagano is presently conducting a longitudinal study examining the role of service in adolescent addiction recovery. An area of new scientific discovery, she’s applying the knowledge she’s accrued with adults to adolescent populations with addition.

February 3rd, 2011  in Alcoholism No Comments »

Risk for alcoholism linked to risk for obesity

Addiction researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have found that a risk for alcoholism also may put individuals at risk for obesity.

The researchers noted that the association between a family history of alcoholism and obesity risk has become more pronounced in recent years. Both men and women with such a family history were more likely to be obese in 2002 than members of that same high-risk group had been in 1992.

“In addiction research, we often look at what we call cross-heritability, which addresses the question of whether the predisposition to one condition also might contribute to other conditions,” says first author Richard A. Grucza, PhD. “For example, alcoholism and drug abuse are cross-heritable. This new study demonstrates a cross-heritability between alcoholism and obesity, but it also says — and this is very important — that some of the risks must be a function of the environment. The environment is what changed between the 1990s and the 2000s. It wasn’t people’s genes.”

Obesity Rates Have Doubled

Obesity in the United States has doubled in recent decades from 15 percent of the population in the late 1970s to 33 percent in 2004. Obese people – those with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or more – have an elevated risk for high blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease, stroke and certain cancers.

Reporting in the Archives of General Psychiatry, Grucza and his team say individuals with a family history of alcoholism, particularly women, have an elevated obesity risk. In addition, that risk seems to be growing. He speculates that may result from changes in the food we eat and the availability of more foods that interact with the same brain areas as addictive drugs.

“Much of what we eat nowadays contains more calories than the food we ate in the 1970s and 1980s, but it also contains the sorts of calories — particularly a combination of sugar, salt and fat — that appeal to what are commonly called the reward centers in the brain,” says Grucza, an assistant professor of psychiatry. “Alcohol and drugs affect those same parts of the brain, and our thinking was that because the same brain structures are being stimulated, overconsumption of those foods might be greater in people with a predisposition to addiction.”

Grucza hypothesized that as Americans consumed more high-calorie, hyper-palatable foods, those with a genetic risk for addiction would face an elevated risk because of the effects of those foods on the reward centers in the brain. His team analyzed data from two large alcoholism surveys from the last two decades.

Family History of Alcoholism

The National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey was conducted in 1991 and 1992. The National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions was conducted in 2001 and 2002. Almost 80,000 people took part in the two surveys.

“We looked particularly at family history of alcoholism as a marker of risk,” Grucza explains. “And we found that in 2001 and 2002, women with that history were 49 percent more likely to be obese than those without a family history of alcoholism. We also noticed a relationship in men, but it was not as striking in men as in women.”

Grucza says a possible explanation for obesity in those with a family history of alcoholism is that some individuals may substitute one addiction for another. After seeing a close relative deal with alcohol problems, a person may shy away from drinking, but high-calorie, hyper-palatable foods also can stimulate the reward centers in their brains and give them effects similar to what they might experience from alcohol.

“Ironically, people with alcoholism tend not to be obese,” Grucza says. “They tend to be malnourished, or at least under-nourished because many replace their food intake with alcohol. One might think that the excess calories associated with alcohol consumption could, in theory, contribute to obesity, but that’s not what we saw in these individuals.”

Change in the Food Environment

Grucza says other variables, from smoking, to alcohol intake, to demographic factors like age and education levels don’t seem to explain the association between alcoholism risk and obesity.

“It really does appear to be a change in the environment,” he says. “I would speculate, although I can’t really prove this, that a change in the food environment brought this association about. There is a whole slew of literature out there suggesting these hyper-palatable foods appeal to people with addictive tendencies, and I would guess that’s what we’re seeing in our study.”

The results, he says, suggest there should be more cross-talk between alcohol and addiction researchers and those who study obesity. He says there may be some people for whom treating one of those disorders also might aid the other.

January 11th, 2011  in Alcoholism No Comments »

Spirituality of A.A. is effective

Addictions, whether it is to drugs or alcohol, are a very difficult hurdle for individuals to overcome. But, there are ways to help people with their recovery through 12-step programs like Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). Many of these organizations, including AA, highlight spirituality as a very important factor, but the data surrounding its effectiveness have often been contested.

However, new research shows that as attendance of AA meetings increase, so do the participants spiritual beliefs, especially in those individuals who had low spirituality at the beginning of the study.

Important Aspect of Recovery

John F. Kelly, lead author of the study, Associate Professor in Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School and the Associate Director of the Center for Addiction Medicine at Massachusetts General Hospital, said that while spirituality is an important aspect of AA recovery, it is not the only way they can help individuals.

“I’ve heard it said that AA is too spiritual, and I’ve also heard it said that AA is not spiritual enough for some people. Although this is not the only way that AA helps individuals recover, I think these findings support the notion that AA works in part by enhancing spiritual practices,” Kelly said.

The researchers assessed more than 1,500 adults throughout their recovery process, with data being gathered at three, six, nine, 12, and 15 months. The study utilized data on their attendance to AA meetings, their individual spirituality/religiosity practices and overall alcohol-use outcomes to determine if spirituality is indeed a mechanism of behavior change.

Decrease in Alcohol Use

The results indicated that there was a robust association between an increase in attendance to AA meetings with increased spirituality and a decrease in the frequency and intensity of alcohol use over time. One of the most interesting aspects of the research was that the same amount of recovery was seen in both agnostics and atheists, which indicates that while spirituality is an important mechanism of behavioral change for AA, it is not the only method used.

“Many people will be surprised that alcoholic patients with little or no interest in spirituality attended AA and seemed to change even more than did those who had a pre-existing, strong sense of spirituality,” said Keith Humphreys, a Career Research Scientist with the Veterans Health Administration and Professor of Psychiatry at Stanford University. “AA is thus much more broad in its appeal than is commonly recognized.”

The researchers also noted that while spirituality is an important aspect of recovery, it is still not known how these beliefs work in complement or competition with other recovery methods, as there are multiple.

Changing Social Networks

“We have also found that AA participation leads to recovery by helping members change their social network and by enhancing individuals’ recovery coping skills, motivation for continued abstinence, and by reducing depression and increasing psychological well-being,” said Kelly.

“Down the road it will be important to conduct more qualitative research as well as further quantitative replication of our findings in order to understand more about how exactly spiritual practices and beliefs influence coping and behavioral change in recovery from addiction”

December 17th, 2010  in Alcoholism 2 Comments »

Stigma deters alcoholics from seeking treatment

Despite the existence of effective programs for treating alcohol dependencies and disorders, less than a quarter of people who are diagnosed actually seek treatment. In a recent study by Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health researchers report that people diagnosed with alcoholism at some point in their lifetime were more than 60% less likely to seek treatment if they believed they would be stigmatized once their status is known.

This is the first study to address the underuse of alcohol services specifically with regard to alcohol-related stigma. Findings are published in the November issue of the American Journal of Epidemiology.

Perceived Negative Stigma

Based on a survey of 34,653 individuals in the general population (6,309 of whom had an alcohol use disorder) drawn from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), researchers found that individuals with an alcohol use disorder who perceived negative stigma were 0.37 times less likely to seek treatment for their disorder compared to individuals with similarly serious alcohol disorders who did not perceive stigma.

In the general population, younger individuals perceived less stigma, and also were less likely to seek treatment for an alcohol disorder. Men perceived more stigma compared to women (38.1%vs. 37.7%). Non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanic adults overall reported a higher mean stigma compared to Whites (39 % vs. 37%) and were less likely to utilize alcohol services. However, the data also suggest that individuals with more severe alcohol disorders had a greater likelihood to seek treatment. Overall, perceived stigma was significantly higher for those with lower personal income, lower education, and individuals previously married compared to those who had never married.

A Barrier to Treatment

“People with alcohol disorders who perceive high levels of alcohol stigma may avoid entering treatment because it confirms their membership in a stigmatized group,” said Katherine Keyes, PhD, in the Mailman School of Public Health Department Epidemiology. “Given that alcohol use disorders are one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in the United States, the empirical documentation of stigma as a barrier to treatment is an important public health finding. Greater attention to reducing the stigma of having an alcohol disorder is urgently needed so that more individuals access the effective systems of care available to treat these disabling conditions.”

December 3rd, 2010  in Alcoholism No Comments »

Energy drink use may lead to alcohol dependence

A hallmark of college life is staying up late to study for an exam the following morning, and many students stay awake by consuming an energy drink. Also increasing in popularity is the practice of mixing alcohol with energy drinks. But these drinks are highly caffeinated and can lead to other problems, in addition to losing sleep. Unfortunately, the contents of energy drinks are not regulated.

New research indicates that individuals who have a high frequency of energy drink consumption (52 or more times within a year) were at a statistically significant higher risk for alcohol dependence and episodes of heavy drinking.

The results will be published in the February 2011 issue of Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research and are currently available at Early View.

Energy Drinks Without Alcohol

Amelia M. Arria, the lead author of the study, Director of the Center on Young Adult Health and Development at the University of Maryland School of Public Health, and a Senior Scientist at the Treatment Research Institute, said that prior research has highlighted the dangers of combining energy drinks with alcohol.

“We were able to examine if energy drink use was still associated with alcohol dependence, after controlling for risk-taking characteristics. The relationship persisted and the use of energy drinks was found to be associated with an increase in the risk of alcohol dependence.”

The study utilized data from more than 1,000 students enrolled at a public university who were asked about their consumption of energy drinks and their alcohol drinking behaviors within the past 12 months.

More Likely to Become Dependent

The researchers found that individuals who consumed energy drinks at a high frequency were more likely to get drunk at an earlier age, drink more per drinking session, and were more likely to develop alcohol dependence compared to both non-users of energy drinks and the low-frequency users.

The results of this study confirm and extend earlier research about the risks of energy drink consumption. A major concern is that mixing energy drinks with alcohol can lead to “wide-awake drunkenness,” where caffeine masks the feeling of drunkenness but does not decrease actual alcohol-related impairment. As a result, the individual feels less drunk than they really are, which could lead them to consume even more alcohol or engage in risky activities like drunk driving.

Caffeine Disguises Impairment

“Caffeine does not antagonize or cancel out the impairment associated with drunkenness—it merely disguises the more obvious markers of that impairment,” says Kathleen Miller, a research scientist from the Research Institute on Addictions at the University at Buffalo. According to her, the next steps in this research include identifying links between energy drinks and other forms of substance abuse, as well assessing the overall prevalence of energy drink use by adolescents and young adults.

“Also needed is research that directly assesses students’ reported reasons for mixing alcohol and energy drinks. Anecdotal reports suggest that part of this phenomenon may be driven by the perpetuation of myths (e.g., mixing alcohol and caffeine reduces drunkenness, prevents hangovers, or fools a breathalyzer test) that could be debunked through further education.”

Arria agrees, adding that further research and regulations are needed to curb this disturbing trend.

“The fact that there is no regulation on the amount of caffeine in energy drinks or no requirements related to the labeling of contents or possible health risks is concerning.”

November 18th, 2010  in Alcohol, Alcoholism No Comments »

Heavy drinkers consume less over time

Problem drinkers in the general population may reduce the amount of alcohol they consume over a period of years but not to the level of the average adult, according to a new study in the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs.

Given that heavy drinkers often don’t become “normal” drinkers on their own, the takeaway message for clinicians and family members is to help connect a problem drinker to a community social service agency or Alcoholics Anonymous. Simply telling someone that they had a drinking problem did not seem to be helpful in this study, but being specific about how to get help did.

Reduced, But Not Safe Consumption

Using a telephone screening program, researchers identified 672 problem and dependent drinkers who had not been in an alcohol treatment program for at least 12 months. Eleven years later, men in the study had reduced their average number of drinks per month by 51%, and women had reduced their average number of drinks by 57%. However, even after this reduction, male and female problem drinkers still consumed 160% and 223% more alcohol, respectively, than the average adult without a drinking problem.

The researchers point out that the greatest reductions in alcohol consumption occurred within one to two years after the initial screening and then slowed, suggesting that problem drinkers and heavy drinkers may never lower their consumption to the level of the general population.

Sustained Drinking Level

“Most heavy drinkers maintain a steady level of heavy alcohol consumption over time,” said lead researcher Kevin L. Delucchi, Ph.D., Professor of Biostatistics in Psychiatry at the University of California San Francisco. “It’s pretty toxic, but somehow they manage to keep drinking at a fairly sustained level. Our people were functional, for the most part. They had addresses, a lot of them had insurance at baseline, and they’re not at the ‘bottom of the barrel,’ which is interesting.”

The researchers say their study is one of the first to examine heavy alcohol use in the general population. Most studies have focused on the most severe drinkers — those who were already in a treatment program, said Delucchi.

Not Getting Treatment

“Not everyone who has an alcohol problem is in treatment or is in a program,” said Delucchi. “People are out there on their own.”

The researchers also examined which factors appeared to be linked with continued heavy drinking. Participants who received help from Alcoholics Anonymous or community social service agencies were likely to drink less. However, those who had heavy-drinking friends in their social network, received general suggestions that they do something about their drinking, and went to a formal treatment program were actually likely to drink more. Delucchi said they were unable to determine why formal treatment appeared to be linked with continued elevated drinking, although the researchers theorize that perhaps those who sought this type of treatment were likely to have experienced the greatest level of alcohol-related problems and, therefore, were more likely to have sought such treatment.

October 29th, 2010  in Alcoholism No Comments »

Stress hormone impacts on alcohol recovery

Scientists at the University of Liverpool have found that high levels of a stress hormone in recovering alcoholics could increase the risk of relapse.

The study showed that cortisol, a hormone produced by the adrenal gland in response to stress, is found in high levels in chronic alcoholics, as well as those recovering from the condition. Researchers found that this could result in impaired memory, attention and decision-making functions, which could decrease the patient’s ability to engage with treatment.

Chronic alcoholism is a disabling addictive disorder, characterised by compulsive and uncontrolled consumption of alcohol despite the negative effects it has on health, relationships and social standing. Alcohol damages almost every organ of the body including the brain where it causes memory loss and impairs decision-making and attention span.

Cortisol and Recovery

Cortisol plays an important role in the regulation of emotion, learning, attention, energy utilization, and the immune system. The research showed that high levels of this hormone are present in alcoholic patients and continue to be elevated during withdrawal from alcohol and after long periods of abstinence.

Dr Abi Rose (lead author of the review), in the School of Psychology, Health and Society at the University of Liverpool, said: “Both drinking and withdrawal from alcohol can affect cortisol function in humans. Cortisol dysfunction, including the high levels of cortisol observed during alcohol withdrawal, may contribute to the high rates of relapse reported in alcohol dependence, even after many months of abstinence. Drugs targeting the effects of cortisol in the brain might reduce the chances of relapse and reduce the cognitive impairments that interfere with treatment.”

September 27th, 2010  in Alcoholism No Comments »

Acamprosate prevents relapse to drinking in alcoholism

Acamprosate reduces the number of patients being treated for alcoholism who return to drinking, according to a new Cochrane Systematic Review. The drug showed moderate benefits in trials when used in addition to non-drug treatments.

Drinking too much alcohol increases the risk of ill health. According to the World Health Organization, alcohol misuse is at the root of around a quarter of all cases of oesophageal cancer, liver disease and epilepsy, as well as road accidents and homicides. Acamprosate and naltrexone are drugs used alongside psychosocial methods to help prevent relapse in alcoholics who are trying to stop drinking.

Lower Risk of Relapse

The researchers reviewed data from 24 randomized controlled trials, considered the gold standard for clinical studies. Altogether these trials involved 6,915 alcohol dependent patients who were also undergoing psychosocial therapies. Acamprosate prevented relapse in one in every nine patients who had stopped drinking and increased the number of days patients spent not drinking by an average of three days a month. The researchers showed that the risk of a patient on acamprosate returning to drinking was 86% of that of a patient who took a placebo instead. Diarrhoea was the only side effect that was more frequently reported under acamprosate than placebo.

“Acamprosate is certainly no magic bullet, but it is a safe and effective treatment for patients who are trying to stop drinking,” said lead researcher Susanne Rösner of the Psychiatric Hospital at the University of Munich, Germany. “The benefits we have seen in these trials are small. However, we must remember that these are additional benefits on top of those from other non-drug therapies.”

Giving Patients a Choice

The researchers stress the need to respect a patient’s right to choose by providing all the necessary information about the benefits and drawbacks of the drugs when recommending a therapeutic strategy. “Patients’ doubts and reservations against a strategy that uses one substance to treat dependency on another should be taken seriously, while interventions that have been shown to work should not kept back from patients,” said Rösner.

September 14th, 2010  in Alcoholism No Comments »

Alcoholic liver disease is more aggressive

Many diagnostic and treatment options have been developed for chronic liver disease during the last 40 years, yet their influence on survival remain unclear. A new study of the prognosis for patients hospitalized for liver diseases between 1969 and 2006, and of differences in mortality and complications between patients with alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver diseases, has found that the general prognosis for patients hospitalized with chronic liver diseases has not improved.

“The most effective changes in treatment for chronic liver disease during the last 40 years are, in my opinion, combination treatment for hepatitis C and treatment with prednisolone and azathioprine for autoimmune hepatitis,” said Knut Stokkeland, an instructor in the department of medicine at Visby Hospital in Sweden and corresponding author for the study. “In addition, new diagnostic tools such as endoscopic examinations, computed tomography, MRI, and ultrasound have probably increased our possibilities to detect early disease and the development of cirrhosis.”

Alcohol Dependence Increases Risks

Stokkeland added that the key difference between alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease is alcohol dependence (AD), which almost all patients with alcoholic liver disease have. “AD increases the risks of social problems, being a smoker, and severe psychiatric diseases,” he said. “It also inhibits staying sober, which may stop disease progression.”

Stokkeland and his colleagues used data from the Swedish Hospital Discharge Register and Cause of Death Register between 1969 and 2006 to both identify and follow up with a cohort of 36,462 patients hospitalized with alcoholic liver diseases and 95,842 patients hospitalized with non-alcoholic liver diseases.

“The main finding of Dr. Stokkeland’s study is the much increased mortality risk of having an alcohol- versus a non-alcohol-related liver disease,” observed Johan Franck, a professor of clinical addiction research at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden. “Thus, patients with alcohol-induced liver diseases should receive more attention, and they should routinely be offered treatment for their alcohol-use disorder. Presumably, the various treatment systems involved – such as hepatology versus substance-abuse care – may not be very well coordinated and this may present an area for improvement.”

Must Focus on Treating Alcoholism

Stokkeland agreed. “This may be caused by the fact that hospitalized patients with [alcoholic] liver disease have such a severe liver disease that no effort may change their prognosis,” he said. “I hope this study will motivate clinicians and scientists in the field of hepatology and gastroenterology to design clinical studies to see if any changes in care-taking of our patients with alcoholic liver disease may change their severe prognosis. We must also focus on treating their AD so that they may stop drinking.”

“Given that alcohol doubles the risk of having a serious liver disease,” added Franck, “efforts to reduce alcohol drinking will likely have a positive impact on the disease’s outcome.”

Results will be published in the November 2010 issue of Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research and are currently available at Early View.

September 5th, 2010  in Alcoholism No Comments »